Moscow is the capital and the largest city of Russia. The city is also the main political, economic, cultural and scientific center.
Moscow is the world’s northernmost megalopolis with the second largest community of billionaires (according to Forbes, 2012) . Being the 5th largest city in the world, it is the most populous city in Europe, with its population of 11 979 529 men (2013), and the residential density of 4 770,82 men/km2.
Moscow lies on the Moskva River in the center of the East European Plain.
As the history passed, the city served as the capital of the alternate states, from the medieval Grand Duchy of Moscow and the subsequent Tsardom of Russia to the Soviet Union and modern Russia.
The city originated in the Moscow Kremlin, a medieval town-fortress that is nowadays a museum and the residence of the Russian President.
The Russian Parliament (both the State Duma and the Federation Council) also meets in Moscow.
The city is an important traffic centre with its four international airports and nine railway terminals.
Moscow has one of the largest subway systems in the world, the Moscow Metro, which is third to Tokyo and Seoul in terms of passenger traffic (2 463,8 million passengers per year, 2012). Due to the rich and unique architecture of its 190 stations, the Moscow Metro is considered to be one of the city’s points of interest.
Over a long history of Moscow, it has earned a number of epithets, or nicknames, most referring to its primary role within the nation:
The First Throne (Moscow was the first city which became the center of all united Russian lands);
The Third Rome (Moscow is considered as the successor to the legacy of the Roman and Byzantine Empires);
The Whitestone One (medieval Moscow was built of white stone);
The Forty Forties (in old Russian the word “sorok” (forty) also meant a church administrative district, which consisted of about forty churches).
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Nicholas II was the last Russian Emperor, the king of Poland and Grand Duke of Finland. His official short title was Nicholas II, Emperor and Autocrat of All the Russias. As with other Russian Emperors he is commonly known by the monarchical title Tsar. He is also known as Saint Nicholas the Passion-Bearer by the Russian Orthodox Church and is referred to as Saint Nicholas the Martyr.
The upper cockade of the Russian Armed Forces is a custom metal sign on the military headdress (service cap). It was approved in 1998 and is applied to the present time.
The cockade represents the emblem of the Russian Armed Forces in the form of a golden double-headed eagle with outstretched wings, holding a sword (a symbol of readiness to defend the Fatherland) and a laurel wreath (a symbol of glory and honor).