A shock worker is a worker who demonstrates increased labour productivity. This concept appeared in the Soviet Union during the first five-year plans.
The word is related to the expression “shock work”, that is, the work at full pressure, aimed at the exceeding of set standards and deadlines. The expression “shock brigade” was also popular. “Shock Worker of Communist Labour” is the official title of honour supported with the certificate and the pin, as well as a cash prize. Other achievements could be followed by more tangible rewards.
“Shock-brigade” movement was an important means of ideological influence. The names of shock workers, who had reached the most impressive results (a miner Alexei Stakhanov, a locomotive engineer Peter Krivonos, a tractor driver Pasha Angelina, a steelworker Makar Mazzei and many others), were widely used as an example to be followed, they received high government awards and were promoted to the elected authorities, etc.
The attitude to shock labor and shock workers was of two kinds. On the one hand, a sincere desire to achieve high performance in professional activities evoked respect. On the other hand, the increased proficiency of some workers soon had a negative effect on the earnings of others, because the set production quotas were consequently raised, and wage rates declined.
By 1970-1980s “shock brigade” movement in the Soviet Union had become a formality, which had no more resemblance to the enthusiasm during the first five-year plans and post-war construction.
The terminology is still used in China and North Korea.
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Nicholas II was the last Russian Emperor, the king of Poland and Grand Duke of Finland. His official short title was Nicholas II, Emperor and Autocrat of All the Russias. As with other Russian Emperors he is commonly known by the monarchical title Tsar. He is also known as Saint Nicholas the Passion-Bearer by the Russian Orthodox Church and is referred to as Saint Nicholas the Martyr.
The upper cockade of the Russian Armed Forces is a custom metal sign on the military headdress (service cap). It was approved in 1998 and is applied to the present time.
The cockade represents the emblem of the Russian Armed Forces in the form of a golden double-headed eagle with outstretched wings, holding a sword (a symbol of readiness to defend the Fatherland) and a laurel wreath (a symbol of glory and honor).