In the Soviet Union, the garrison cap with the five-pointed red star was known as “pilotka”. The name was derived from “pilot”, for the original cap was a part of the air force pilots’ uniform during World War I. Pilotka remained the most common type of the summer headdress used by the Soviet Army during World War II and after, until the 1990s.
The five-pointed red star is often considered a symbol of communism, representing the five fingers of a worker’s hand, or the five continents.
Another suggestion is that the five points of the star symbolize the five social classes – the youth, the army, the proletariat, the peasantry, and the intelligentsia – that were intended to lead the country to communism under the rule of the Communist Party.
All over the world, the red star with the hammer and sickle is treated very differently. Some states have passed the laws banning it, claiming that it symbolizes “the ideology of totalitarianism “, though other countries keep a very positive attitude to it being a symbol of antifascism and struggle against the Nazi.
According to the Soviet heraldic tradition the red star is the symbol of the Red Army (and the military service in general) as opposed to the hammer and sickle considered the symbol of the peaceful constructive labour.Author of the post picture is unknown
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Nicholas II was the last Russian Emperor, the king of Poland and Grand Duke of Finland. His official short title was Nicholas II, Emperor and Autocrat of All the Russias. As with other Russian Emperors he is commonly known by the monarchical title Tsar. He is also known as Saint Nicholas the Passion-Bearer by the Russian Orthodox Church and is referred to as Saint Nicholas the Martyr.