Novorossiysk is the Southern Gate of Russia, the country’s main port on the Black Sea and the leading Russian port for exporting grain. It is one of the few cities honored with the title of the Hero City. Its population is 251,013 men (2013).
In antiquity, the shores of the Tsemess Bay were the site of Bata, an ancient Greek colony specialized in the grain trade.
It is mentioned in the works of Strabo and Ptolemy, among others. Archaeological investigation in the area is in nascent state, but some interesting artefacts have already been uncovered.
Since 1722 the bay was under command of the Ottoman fortress of Sujuk-Qale. After the coastline was conquered by Russia in 1829, in 1838 admirals Mikhail Lazarev and Nikolay Raevsky founded there an eastern base for the Black Sea Fleet. Named after the province of Novorossiya (New Russia), the port formed a vital link in the chain of forts known as the Black Sea Coastal Line, which stretched south to Sochi.
During the rest of the 19th century, Novorossiysk developed rapidly. It was granted the status of a town in 1866, after the end of the colonial Russo-Adyghe (Circassian) War, and in 1896 the city became the capital of the Black Sea Governorate, the smallest in the Russian Empire.
Most of the city was occupied by the Nazi Germans on September 10, 1942. A small unit of Soviet sailors for 225 days defended only one part of it, known as Malaya Zemlya (Minor Land). The city was liberated on September 16, 1943. The heroic defense of the port by the sailors of the Black Sea Fleet allowed the Soviet Red Army to retain possession of the city’s bay, which prevented the Germans from using the port for supply shipments. Novorossiysk was awarded the honourable title Hero City in 1973.
In 1960, the city’s glorious history was immortalized in Dmitri Shostakovich’s masterpiece “Novorossiysk Chimes, the Flame of Eternal Glory” (Opus 111b).
In 2003, President Vladimir Putin signed a decree setting up the naval base of the Black Sea Fleet in Novorossiysk.Author of the post picture is A.N. Stadnik
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Nicholas II was the last Russian Emperor, the king of Poland and Grand Duke of Finland. His official short title was Nicholas II, Emperor and Autocrat of All the Russias. As with other Russian Emperors he is commonly known by the monarchical title Tsar. He is also known as Saint Nicholas the Passion-Bearer by the Russian Orthodox Church and is referred to as Saint Nicholas the Martyr.
The upper cockade of the Russian Armed Forces is a custom metal sign on the military headdress (service cap). It was approved in 1998 and is applied to the present time.
The cockade represents the emblem of the Russian Armed Forces in the form of a golden double-headed eagle with outstretched wings, holding a sword (a symbol of readiness to defend the Fatherland) and a laurel wreath (a symbol of glory and honor).